[41], After exhibition at the Kunstschau, the portrait was hung at the Bloch-Bauers' Vienna residence. This painting is perhaps most famous not for its artistic quality, but because of its scandalous history since inception. The portrait was commissioned by the sitter's husband, Ferdinand Bloch-Bauer (de), a Jewish banker and sugar producer. The portrait is the final and most fully representative work of Klimt's golden phase. That autumn, following the Munich Agreement, he realised he was not safe and left for Paris. cuckoldry". [59][71], In March 2000 Altmann filed a civil claim against the Austrian government for the return of the paintings. The painting was stolen by the Nazis in 1941, along with the remainder of Ferdinand's assets, after a charge of tax evasion was made against him. [9] By 1900 he was the preferred portrait painter of the wives of the largely Jewish Viennese bourgeoisie,[3][10] an emerging class of self-made industrialists who were "buying the innovative new art that state museums rejected", according to the journalist Anne-Marie O'Connor. In his absence the Nazi regime falsely accused him of evading taxes of 1.4 million Reichsmarks. The painting was stolen by the Nazis in 1941 and displayed at the Österreichische Galerie Belvedere. [95] The book was dramatised for the stage in January 2015. The influence of Egyptian art on Klimt is undoubtedly at work in this portrait of the wife of the industrialist Ferdinand Bloch-Bauer. Ferdinand's brother Gustav, a lawyer by training, helped her frame the document and was named as the executor. [37] Klimt later said that the "mosaics of unbelievable splendour" were a "revelation" to him. The portrait was commissioned by the sitter's husband, Ferdinand Bloch-Bauer (de), a Jewish banker and sugar producer. [72][73] To avoid the prohibitively high costs, Altmann and Schoenberg sued the Austrian government and the Galerie Belvedere in the US courts. [59][60] The Bloch-Bauer family hired Dr Gustav Rinesh, a Viennese lawyer, to reclaim stolen artwork on their behalf. [59], In 1946 the Austrian state issued an Annulment Act that declared all transactions motivated by Nazi discrimination were void; any Jews who wanted to remove artwork from Austria were forced to give some of their works to Austrian museums in order to obtain an export permit for others. [20] Opinion is divided on whether Adele and Klimt had an affair. Nonetheless, the Austrian government retained ownership of the painting, and was not returned to the Altmann family until 2006 after a long court battle. She sold it the same year for $135 million, at the time a record price for a painting to the businessman and art collector Ronald Lauder, who placed the work in the Neue Galerie, the New York-based gallery he co-founded. Loggy and Alex’s friendship in Miami’s redeveloping Liberty Square is threatened when Loggy learns that Alex is being relocated to another community. Portrait of Adele Bloch-Bauer I (also called The Lady in Gold or The Woman in Gold) is a painting by Gustav Klimt, completed between 1903 and 1907.The portrait was commissioned by the sitter's husband, Ferdinand Bloch-Bauer [], a Jewish banker and sugar producer.The painting was stolen by the Nazis in 1941 and displayed at the Österreichische Galerie Belvedere. In September the following year, he moved to neutral Switzerland where he lived in a hotel. Far Wall, The Beethoven Frieze: The Longing for Happiness Finds Repose in Poetry. In 2006, following eight years of effort by the Bloch-Bauer heirs, the painting was returned to the family; it was sold the same year for $135 million, at the time a record price for a painting. [96] In 2015 Altmann's story was dramatised for the film Woman in Gold starring Helen Mirren as Maria and Ryan Reynolds as Schoenberg. The Austrian government filed for dismissal, with arguments based on the Foreign Sovereign Immunities Act (1976). [n 9] The government formed a restitution committee to report on which works should be returned; government archives were opened up to research into the provenance of works held by the government. [18], Adele Bauer [de] was from a wealthy Jewish Viennese family. The portrait was commissioned by the sitter's husband, Ferdinand Bloch-Bauer [de], a Jewish banker and sugar producer. Whitford writes that the only evidence put forward to support the theory is the position of the woman's right hand, as Adele had a disfigured finger following a childhood accident. [54] The painting was lent for an exhibition at the Vienna Secession in 1928 to mark the tenth anniversary of Klimt's death; in 1934 it was displayed in London as part of the Austria in London exhibition. Plagued by ill heath and tragedy, Adele Bloch-Bauer (left) was nevertheless a stalwart patron of the arts. [40] Klimt finished the work by 1907. Adele Bloch-Bauer II sold for $87.9 million, Apfelbaum I for $33 million, Buchenwald for $40.3 million and Häuser in Unterach am Attersee for $31 million. Schoenberg showed that three of the conditions pertinent to the case were that Altmann's property had been taken in violation of international law; the property was owned by the state in question, or one of its agencies; and that the property had been used on a commercial basis in the US. Ferdinand Bloch-Bauer favored the arts, especially Klimt, and commissioned him to complete another portrait of his wife Adele in 1912. Following the Anschluss of Austria by Nazi Germany, Ferdinand fled Vienna, and made his way to Switzerland, leaving behind much of his wealth, including his large art collection. [50] [30][n 3], In mid-1903 Ferdinand Bloch-Bauer commissioned Klimt to paint a portrait of his wife; he wished to give the piece to Adele's parents as an anniversary present that October. [3] In 1897 he was a founding member and president of the Vienna Secession, a group of artists who wanted to break with what they saw as the prevailing conservatism of the Viennese Künstlerhaus. [44][45] Peter Vergo, writing for Grove Art, considers that the painting "marks the height of ... [Klimt's] gold-encrusted manner of painting". Ferdinand died in 1946; his will stated that his estate should go to his nephew and two nieces. Right wall, University of Vienna Ceiling Paintings (Medicine), detail showing Hygieia. [n 10] They filed a claim with the restitution committee for the return of six paintings: Adele Bloch-Bauer I, Adele Bloch-Bauer II, Apfelbaum I, Buchenwald, Häuser in Unterach am Attersee and Amalie Zuckerkandl. He added that Ferdinand had said he would honour the clause, even though he, not Adele, was the legal owner of the paintings. He attended the Vienna School of Arts and Crafts (German:Kunstgewerbeschule Wien) before taking on commissions with his brother, Ernst, and a fellow-student Franz von Matsch from 1879. For the 2015 British film, see, "Lady in Gold" redirects here. [35] In December 1903, along with fellow artist Maximilian Lenz, Klimt visited the Basilica of San Vitale in Ravenna where he studied the early-Christian Byzantine gold mosaics of Justinian I and his wife, Empress Theodora. [64], In August 1945 Ferdinand wrote a final will that revoked all previous ones. Add to Cart * Crystal Diamonds - Special Shapes * (Partial Canvas) Complete Kit Create A Glimmering Diamond Painting With Special Crystals! [61][62] Göring also used the Führervorbehalt decree to obtain the jewelled choker that had been given to Maria Altmann; it was given as a gift to Emmy, his wife. Without reference to a date of commission, Partsch considers that some initial sketches were undertaken in 1900. [26] Socially well-connected, Adele brought together writers, politicians and intellectuals for regular salons at their home. [30][33] She wears a tight golden dress in a triangular shape, made up of rectilinear forms. It is now displayed the Neue Art Gallery in New York. The art historian Gilles Néret considers that the use of gold in the painting "underlines the essential erotic ingredient in ... [Klimt's] view of the world". Gustav Klimt was born in 1862 in Baumgarten, near Vienna in Austria-Hungary. [n 12] Schoenberg gave evidence before them in September 2005 and, in January 2006, they delivered their judgement. [93] The story of Adele Bloch-Bauer and Maria Altmann formed the basis for the 2017 novel Stolen Beauty by Laurie Lico Albanese. In December 1937, Gustav's daughter- Maria, married a young opera singer. One of Ferdinand's nieces, Maria Altmann, hired the lawyer E. Randol Schoenberg to make a claim against the gallery for the return of five works by Klimt. After a seven-year legal claim, which included a hearing in front of the Supreme Court of the United States, an arbitration committee in Vienna agreed that the painting, and others, had been stolen from the family and that it should be returned to Altmann. [3], Adele's hair, face, décolletage and hands are painted in oil; they make up less than a twelfth of the work and, in Whitford's opinion, convey little about the sitter's character. Adele died in 1925; her will asked that the artworks by Klimt were to be left to the Galerie Belvedere, although these belonged to Ferdinand, not her. This painting, which took three years to complete, was commissioned by the wealthy industrialist Ferdinand Bloch-Bauer, who made his money in the sugar industry. It was sold to the businessman and art collector Ronald Lauder, who placed the work in the Neue Galerie, the New York-based gallery he co-founded. The painting was stolen by the Nazis in 1941 and displayed at the Österreichische Galerie Belvedere. [59][60], As part of the process to deal with the purported tax evasion, the Nazi lawyer Friedrich Führer was appointed as the administrator of the estate. [88][90], The history of the Portrait of Adele Bloch-Bauer I and the other paintings taken from the Bloch-Bauers has been recounted in three documentary films, Stealing Klimt (2007), The Rape of Europa (2007) and Adele's Wish (2008). In 1912 Ferdinand commissioned a second painting of his wife,[22] in which "the erotic charge of the likeness of 1907 has been spent", according to Whitford. ")[52][53], In February 1925 Adele died of meningitis. [36][37][35] Lenz later wrote that "the mosaics made an immense decisive impression on ... [Klimt]. Upon her death, Adele Bloch-Bauer wished the painting to be given to the Austrian State Gallery, but it was seized by advancing German forces in World War II. All went to private collections. [41], The painting measures 138 by 138 cm (54 by 54 in);[42][n 5] it is composed of oil paint and silver and gold leaf on canvas. His assets were frozen and, in May 1938, a seizure order was issued that allowed the state to dispose of his property as they felt fit. Three arbitrators formed the panel, Andreas Nödl, Walter Rechberger and Peter Rummel. [100][101] He subsequently specialised in the restitution of artwork plundered by the Nazis.

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